## HUKUM RAOULT PDF

Nama/NIM: Muhamad Syaiful Ampri/Kelompok: Kimia () Judul: “ HUKUM RAOULT” ALAT dan BAHAN. Contoh campuran ideal. Campuran ideal dan perubahan entalpi pada proses pencampuran. Hukum Raoult Tekanan uap / diagram komposisi. Raoult’s law (Q) François-Marie Raoult hywiki Ռաուլի օրենքներ; idwiki Hukum Raoult; itwiki Legge di Raoult; jawiki ラウールの法則; jvwiki Hukum .

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If the system is at equilibriumthen the chemical potential of the component i must be the same in the liquid solution and in the vapor above it. If you boil a liquid mixture, you can find out the temperature it boils at, and the composition of the vapor over the boiling liquid. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

For example, in the next diagram, if rapult boil a liquid mixture C 1it will boil hukun a temperature T 1 and the vapor over the top of the boiling liquid will have the composition C 2. When you make any mixture of liquids, you have to break the existing intermolecular attractions which needs energyand then remake new ones which releases energy.

If you triple the mole fraction, its partial vapor pressure will triple – and so on.

### Hukum Raoult – Wikipedia

There are two ways of looking at the above question: If the deviation is large, then the vapor pressure curve shows a maximum at a particular composition and form a positive azeotrope. Raoult’s law is instead valid if the physical properties of the components are identical.

There are two ways of looking at the above question:. Let’s focus hukkm one of these liquids – A, for example. That would boil at a new temperature T 2and the vapor over the top of it would have a composition C 3. Assuming the liquid is an ideal solution, and using the formula for the chemical potential of a gas, gives:.

How these work will be explored on another page. This page was last edited on 11 Decemberat Views View Edit History. What do these two aspects imply about the boiling points of the two liquids? That hukumm that there are only half as many of each sort of molecule on the surface as in the pure liquids. However, some liquid mixtures get fairly close to being ideal.

You calculate mole fraction using, for example: They are similarly sized molecules and so have similarly sized van der Waals attractions between them. According to Raoult’s Law, you will double its partial vapor pressure. You can see that we now have a hhkum which is getting quite close to being pure Gukum. One can see that from considering the Gibbs free energy change of mixing:. That is exactly what it says it is – the fraction of the total number of moles present which is A or B.

If the vapor pressure is less than predicted a negative deviationfewer molecules of each component than expected have left the solution in the presence of the other component, indicating that the forces between unlike molecules are stronger. This page was last edited on 4 Januaryat The vapor pressure of pure methanol at this temperature is 81 kPa, and the vapor raohlt of pure ethanol is 45 kPa.

The P o values are the vapor pressures of A and B if they were taoult their own as huku, liquids. However, a more fundamental thermodynamic definition of an ideal solution is one in which the chemical potential of each component is given by the above formula. In fact, it turns out to be a curve. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. In any mixture of gases, each gas exerts its own pressure.

If that is not obvious to you, go back and read the last section again! Boiling point and Composition Diagrams The relationship between boiling point and vapor pressure If a liquid has a high vapor pressure at a particular temperature, it means that its molecules are escaping easily from the surface.

This law is known as Henry’s law. It covers cases where the two liquids are entirely miscible in all proportions to give a single liquid – NOT those where one liquid floats on top of the other immiscible liquids. This phenomenon is the basis for distillation.

In practice, this is all a lot easier than it looks when you first meet the definition of Raoult’s Law and the equations!

### Raoult’s law – Wikidata

If you plot a graph of the partial vapor pressure of A against its mole fraction, you will get a straight line. Comparing measured vapor pressures to predicted values from Raoult’s law provides information about the true relative strength of intermolecular forces.

The smaller the intermolecular forces, the more molecules will be able to escape at any particular temperature. That means that an ideal mixture of two liquids will have zero enthalpy change of mixing. The first factor is a correction for gas non-ideality, or deviations from the ideal-gas law.

## Raoult’s Law and Ideal Mixtures of Liquids

The definition below is the one to use if you are talking about mixtures of two volatile liquids. Solubility equilibrium Total dissolved solids Solvation Solvation shell Enthalpy of solution Lattice energy Raoult’s law Henry’s law Solubility table data Solubility chart.

The mole fraction of B falls as A increases so the line will slope down rather than up. The system hydrochloric acid – water has a large enough negative deviation to form a minimum in the vapor pressure curve known as a negative azeotropecorresponding to a mixture that evaporates without change of composition. If you follow the logic of this through, the intermolecular attractions between two red molecules, two blue molecules or a red and a blue molecule must all be exactly the same if the mixture is to be ideal.

In consequence each component is retained in the liquid phase by attractive forces that are stronger than in the pure liquid so that its partial vapor pressure is lower.

We’ll start with the boiling points of pure A and B.