EVANGILE APOCRYPHE DE JUDAS PDF
The Kiss of Judas is a traditional depiction of Judas by Giotto di Bondone, c. loosely labeled as New Testament Apocrypha, which were usually (but .. À PROPOS DE LA (RE)DÉCOUVERTE DE L’ÉVANGILE DE JUDAS. Le coq assista au marché conclus par Judas et s’en alla l’annoncer à Jésus, qui, de la Passion entremêlée de quelques variantes étrangères à l’Évangile. Apocryphal Apocalypse of John (Arabic, Garshuni). ** Gospel of 1. Apocryphal Gospel of John [Back to Top] .. Un Évangile de Gamaliel”, Revue biblique, vol. 3, pp. T. Jansma, Ed., A Selection from the Acts of Judas Thomas. Leiden.
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The Gospel of Judasa second century Gnostic gospelwas discovered in the twentieth century and publicly unveiled in It portrays the apostle Judas Iscariotone of the twelve apostles of Jesusin a more positive light than can be found in the New Testament accepted by Christianity. According to the traditional canonical Gospels, Judas betrayed Jesus to the Great Sanhedrinwhich officiated over his crucifixion. The Gospel of Judas instead presents this act as one performed in obedience to the instructions of Jesus.
Such a portrayal of the “betrayal” of Jesus is consistent with the Gnostic notion that the human form is a prison of the spirit within; thus Judas helped to release the spirit of Christ from the physical constraints of his body. An alternate reading of the Gospel’s incomplete text suggests it is really saying that Judas was possessed by a demon.
The papyrus has been carbon-dated to approximately the third to fourth century C. The gospel of Judas contains no references supporting the view that Judas himself was its author, but rather that it was written by Gnostic followers of Jesus the Christ. Still, there are nagging questions about whether the document could be a modern forgery. During the second and third centuries C. The manuscript called Codex Tchacos, the only known manuscript that includes the text of the Gospel of Judas, surfaced in the s in Egypt as a leather-bound papyrus manuscript.
The papyri on which the Gospel is written is now in over a thousand pieces, possibly due to poor handling and storage, with many sections missing. In some cases, there are only scattered words; in others, many lines. According to Rodolphe Kasser, the codex originally contained 31 pages, with writing on front and back; but when it came to the market inonly 13 pages, with writing on front and back, remained.
The early Christian writer Irenaeus of Lyons, whose writings were almost all directed against Gnosticism, mentions The Gospel of Judas in Book 1 Chapter 31 of Refutation of Gnosticism calling it a “fictitious history.
It was also referred to by Origen in the year C. Due to textual analysis for features of dialect and Greek loan words, academics who have analyzed the Gospel of Judas, which is written in the Coptic language, believe that it is probably a translation from an older Greek manuscript dating to approximately — C.
The existing manuscript was radiocarbon dated to be “between the third and fourth century” according to Timothy Jull, a carbon-dating expert at the University of Arizona’s physics centre. Only sections of papyrus with no text were carbon dated. Nevertheless, there are nagging questions about whether the document could be a modern forgery. Doubts arise from a grammatical error carried over from a published copy of the Nag Hammadi text of the Apocryphon of John and a modern-sounding polemic against homosexual priests.
If so, the forger would have to be a modern scholar of who knew second-century Coptic and who had access to an old papyrus that would yield the early radiocarbon date.
Like many Gnostic works, the Gospel of Judas claims to be a secret account, specifically “the secret account of the revelation that Jesus spoke in conversation with Judas Iscariot. Over the ages, many philosophers have contemplated the idea that Judas was required to have carried out his actions in order for Jesus to have died on the cross and hence fulfill theological obligations. However, the Gospel of Judas asserts that Judas was acting on the orders of Jesus himself. For you will sacrifice the man that clothes me.
Unlike the four canonical gospels, which employ narrative accounts of the last year of life of Jesus three years in the case of John and of his birth only in the case of Luke and Matthewthe Judas gospel takes the form of dialogues between Jesus and Judas and Jesus and the 12 disciples without being embedded in any narrative or worked into any overt philosophical or rhetorical context. Such dialogue gospels were popular during the early decades of Christianity.
Like the canonical gospels, the Gospel of Judas portrays the scribes as wanting to arrest Jesus, and offering Judas money to hand over Jesus to them. However, unlike the Judas of the canonical gospels, who is portrayed as a villain, and chastised by Jesus, “Alas for that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed.
It would be better for that man if he had never been born,” Mark The New English Biblethe Judas gospel portrays him as a divinely appointed instrument of a grand and predetermined purpose. Another portion shows Jesus favoring Judas above other disciples, saying, “Step away from the others and I shall tell you the mysteries of the kingdom,” and later “Look, you have been told everything.
Lift up your eyes and look at the cloud and the light within it and the stars surrounding it.
The star that leads the way is your star. The Gospel of Judas does not say that Judas hanged himself—indeed it seems to indicate Judas died while being stoned by evangil remaining eleven disciples.
He is said to have died by hanging himself in the Gospel of Matthew, Matthew He writes there are some who:. They declare that Judas the traitor was thoroughly acquainted with these things, and that he alone, knowing the truth as no others did, accomplished the mystery of the betrayal; by him all things, both earthly and heavenly, were thus thrown into confusion.
They produce a fictional evangioe of this kind, which they style apocdyphe Gospel of Judas. Irenaeus, “Doctrine of the Cainites” . This is in reference to the Cainites, an alleged sect of Gnosticism that especially worshipped Cain as a hero.
New Testament Apocrypha |
Irenaeus alleged that the Cainites, like a large number of Gnostic groups, were semi-maltheists believing that the god of the Old Testament— Yahweh —was evil, and a quite different and much lesser being to the deity that had created the universe, and who was responsible for sending Jesus.
Such Gnostic groups worshipped as heroes all the Biblical figures that had sought to discover knowledge or challenge Yahweh’s authority, while demonizing those who would have been seen as heroes in a more orthodox interpretation.
apocrhphe The Gospel of Judas belongs to a school of Gnosticism called Sethianisma group who looked to Adam’s son Seth as their spiritual ancestor. As in other Sethian documents, Jesus is equated with Seth: For metaphysical reasons, the Sethian Gnostic authors of this text maintained that Judas acted as he did in order that mankind might be redeemed by the death of Jesus’ mortal body.
For this reason, they regarded Judas as worthy of gratitude jhdas veneration. The Gospel of Judas does not describe any events after the arrest of Jesus.
By contrast, the Gospel of Johnunlike the synoptic gospels, contains the statement of Jesus to Judas, as apocrypye latter leaves the Last Supper to set in motion the betrayal process, “Do quickly what you have to do.
The New English Bible. Some two centuries after Irenaeus’ complaint, Epiphanius of Salamis, bishop of Cyprus fe, criticized the Gospel of Judas for treating as commendable the person whom he saw as the betrayer of Jesus, and as one who “performed a good work for our salvation. The initial translation of the Gospel of Judas, widely publicized, simply confirmed the account that was written in Irenaeus and known Gnostic beliefs, leading some scholars to simply summarize the discovery as nothing new.
However, a closer reading of the existent text, presented in Octobershows that Judas may have been set up to actually betray Jesus out of wrath re anger:. The initial translators might have been misled by Irenaeus’ summary, which although an exciting idea was not necessarily accurate.
Their theory is now in dispute. The content of the gospel had been unknown until a Coptic Gospel of Judas turned up on the antiquities “grey market,” first seen under shady circumstances in a hotel room in Geneva in Maywhen it was found among apocrypne mixed group of Greek and Coptic manuscripts offered to Stephen Emmel, a Yale Ph.
How this manuscript, Codex Tchacos, was found has not been clearly documented. However, it is believed that a now-deceased Egyptian antiquities prospector discovered the codex near El Minya, Egyptin the neighborhood of the village Beni Masar, and sold it to a Cairo antiquities dealer called “Hanna.
Aroundthe manuscript and most of the dealer’s other artifacts were stolen by a Greek trader named Nikolas Koutoulakis, taken out of Egypt and smuggled into Geneva.
apoccryphe Hanna managed to recover the codex by coordinating with antiquity traders in Switzerland. During the decades that the manuscript was for apocrpyhe, no major library felt ready to purchase a codex with such questionable provenance. InMichel van Rijn started to publish material about the dubious dealings. Eventually the page leather bound codex was purchased by the Maecenas Foundation in Basel, a private foundation directed by lawyer Mario Jean Roberty.
Its previous owners now claimed that juddas had been uncovered at Muhafazat al Minya in Egypt during the s or s, and that its significance had not been appreciated until recently. It is worth noting that various other sites were mentioned mudas other negotiations. The existence of the text was made public by Rodolphe Kasser at a conference of Coptic specialists in Paris, July In a statement issued March 30,a spokesman for the Maecenas Foundation announced plans for edited translations into English, French and German, once the fragile papyrus had undergone conservation by a team of specialists in Coptic history to be led by a former professor at the University of Geneva, Rodolphe Kasser.
In January of at the University of Arizona, A. Tim Jull, director of the National Science Foundation Arizona AMS laboratory, and Gregory Hodgins, assistant research scientist, announced that a radiocarbon dating procedure had dated five samples from the papyrus manuscript from to C. In JanuaryGene A. Ware of the Papyrological Imaging Lab of Brigham Young University conducted a multi-spectral imaging process on apocryphs texts in Switzerland, and confirmed their authenticity. The work belongs there and they will be conserved in the best way,” Roberty has stated.
Over the decades, the manuscript had been handled with less than sympathetic care and single pages had been stolen to be sold on the antiquities market one half page turned up in Feb.
Today, the text, now in over a thousand pieces and fragments, is thought to be less than three-quarters complete. In April ofan Ohio bankruptcy lawyer claimed to have several apovryphe, brown bits of papyrus that are parts of the Gospel of Judas, but he refuses to have the fragments authenticated and his claim is being viewed with skepticism by experts.
Professor Kasser revealed a few details about the text inthe Dutch paper Parool reported. The codex has four parts: Up to a third of the codex is currently illegible. A scientific paper was to be published inbut was delayed.
The completion of the restoration and translation was announced by the National Geographic Society at a news conference in Washington, DC on April 6,and the manuscript itself was unveiled then at the National Geographic Society headquarters, accompanied by a television special entitled The Gospel of Judas on April 9,which was aired on the National Geographic Channel. Terry Garcia, an executive vice president of the National Geographic Society, asserted that the codex is considered by scholars and scientists to be the most significant ancient, non-biblical text to be found since the s.
Judas Iscariot Research Papers –
Many copies of the Gospel of Judas appear to have been destroyed by the early Church to prevent its views from spreading, and to conform to orthodoxy. Thus, its re-surfacing in the twentieth century was a very important event in biblical archeology and scholarship. Robinson, one of America’s leading experts on such ancient religious texts, predicted that the new book would not offer any insights into the disciple who betrayed Jesus because, though the document is old, being from the third century, the text is not old enough.
According to Robinson, it was probably based on an earlier document. However, Apkcryphe also suggested that the text would be valuable to scholars concentrating on the second century, but not because it provided a greater understanding of the Bible. National Geographic responded to Robinson’s criticism by saying that “it’s evaangile for Robinson to raise such questions since he had “for dee, tried unsuccessfully to acquire the codex himself, and is publishing his own book in Aprildespite having no direct access to the materials.
Robinson describes the secretive maneuvers in the United StatesSwitzerlandGreece and elsewhere over two decades to sell the Judas manuscript,  while a novel by Simon Mawer, The Gospel of Judas published in UK and USrevolves around the discovery of a Gospel of Judas in a Dead Sea cave and its effect on a scholarly priest. In his Easter address, Rowan Williams, the Archbishop of Canterburycondemned the credibility of the gospel, saying, “This is a demonstrably late text which simply parallels a large number of quite well-known works from the more eccentric fringes of the early century Church.
We are instantly fascinated by the suggestion of conspiracies and cover-ups; this has become so much the stuff of our imagination these days that it is only natural, it seems, to expect it when we turn to ancient texts, especially biblical texts. We treat them as zpocryphe they were unconvincing press aplcryphe from some official source, whose intention is to conceal the real story; and that real story waits for the intrepid investigator to uncover it and share it with the waiting world.
Anything that looks like the official version is automatically suspect. The Vatican, by word of Pope Benedict XVI, grants the recently apoccryphe Judas’ Gospel no credit with regards to its apocryphal claims that Judas betrayed Jesus in compliance with the latter’s own requests. According to the Pope, Judas freely chose to betray Evanfile He was a greedy man: New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article apkcryphe accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards.
This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa wvangile. Credit is due under the apocrypbe of this license that can reference both the New World Encyclopedia contributors and the selfless volunteer contributors of the Wikimedia Foundation.