CAPRINOCULTURA LEITEIRA PDF
Comportamento de cabras leiteiras Saanen em ambiente enriquecido Palavras-chave: bem-estar animal; caprinocultura leiteira;. Novo Núcleo Regional da Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos apoiará caprinocultura leiteira na PB e PE. Keywords: Caprinocultura leiteira, Ordenha manual, Boas práticas agropecuárias da Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos apoiará caprinocultura leiteira na PB e PE.
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The objective of the present study was to evaluate the behavior of lactating Saanen dairy goats housed with or without the use of environmental enrichment technique.
Twelve animals were split into two equal groups and assign to one of two treatments: Five objects were used to enrich the stalls: The behavior of the goats was observed during two hours for 10 consecutive days.
The behaviors were recorded using focal-animal sampling method, observing each animal during minute period. Descriptive statistics were calculated plotting the results in behavior frequency charts. Animals on both treatments showed similar behaviors frequencies for food intake and self-cleaning. However, a higher frequency of stereotyped behaviors was registered in the treatment without environmental enrichment. In conclusion, animals on enriched environment show more different behaviors than animals in non-enriched environment and showed greater preference for some object over others.
Doze animais foram divididos em dois grupos iguais e designados a um dos seguintes tratamentos: Cinco objetos foram utilizados para enriquecer as baias: Goat farming was a marginal or subsistence activity, characterized by low productivity. Small producers with low income and no technological resources usually carried it out. However, this is changing due to increase in national and international consumption of products coming from this activity.
In addition, methodological and technological advances are contributing to consolidate the activity Resende et al. Goat breeding is one of the most competitive and growing activities of the Brazilian economy. The market has become more demanding about the quality of the products from this sector.
It is, therefore, important that Brazilian producers understand and adapt to the international market demands and dynamics for goat meat, milk, and derivative products. Environmental enrichment can improve animal welfare and production. Environmental enrichment consists in introducing objects that stimulate the animals, reducing the monotony of feedlot to which they are commonly housed during the productive process.
Animals in feedlot are restricted to express behaviors compatible with those that the environment allows them to perform, consequently, they fail to perform behaviors characteristic of the species and begin to develop abnormal behavior, such as stereotypies. A stereotypy is a behavioral disorder characterized by continuous repetition of certain behaviors. Frustration leads to repetitive and non-functional behaviors stereotypy. In addition, environmental enrichment seeks to allow the expression of the natural pattern of behaviors of the species, avoiding anomalies that could harm the physical and psychic welfare of farming animals, as well as their productivity.
This type of management consists of placing objects, such as balls, tires, and others that can break the monotony of the physical environment. For goats, it is also important to provide vertical structures that serve as climbing objects, since these animals usually go to elevated places to feed and hide from predators Ribeiro et al.
The cwprinocultura of this study was to evaluate the effect of environmental enrichment on animal welfare of Saanen goats during lactation through behavioral analyses. Animals were housed in an over-ground slatted floor facility.
Twelve Saanen dairy goats yielding 1.
Each stall was randomly assigned to a treatment. Stalls were equipped with nipple drinkers and feeding bunk with safety feed fence. They had ad libitum access to water, roughage corn silageand concentrate during the experimental period. The animals were evaluated for 10 days in two different treatments.
Animals on stall number 1 and 2 were submitted to an enriched environment, while animals on stall number 3 and 4 were not submitted to any environmental enrichment. The animals were already acclimated to the stalls and their stall roommates, and there was no redistribution or selection of animals, avoiding new territorial disputes by the dominant goats and possible stress source. The objects used to enrich the environment were evenly placed in the stalls, allowing animals to have free access to them.
We used the following objects: Previously, we observed that animals had the habit of scrubbing their backs on the stall walls as an attempt to clean their hair. We then had the idea to fix brushes to the wall. Behavioral evaluations of the animals were performed a week after enriching the environment, this first week was the pre-experimental period. During the pre-experimental period, most common behaviors of animals placed in all stalls enriched or not was observed in order to create an ethogram Table 1.
During the pre-experimental period, the activities performed by the animals were recorded for one hour. Trained personnel recorded the behavior of each animal. All people responsible for recording animal behaviors were trained in order to increase the observations accuracy.
Goat behaviors were observed for two hours during 10 days from This timing was chosen because the animals had already consumed their feeding and rumination rate had already decreased. The behaviors were recorded using focal-animal sampling method. Each animal was observed during minute period, resulting in 6 observations per hour, 12 observations per day, and observations per animal during the experimental period. Animals in both groups were evaluated regarding the following behaviors: For animals on enriched environment, we also recorded the interactions with the tire, suspended PET, tree trunk, brushes, and free PET on the floor.
Data from behavioral analysis were summarized through descriptive statistics and used to build frequency charts, which aimed at facilitating the interpretation of the obtained results.
Figure 1 depicts the frequency percentage of each behavior during the day experimental period. Self-cleaning and voluntary intake were the most frequent behavior observed on both treatments. Self-cleaning behaviors, which are commonly observed in animals in their natural habitat are highly frequent and aim at preventing and eliminating ectoparasites. The behavior of biting stall parts alternated with food intake was considered abnormal and recorded as stereotyped behavior, as well as licking several times the same spot or standing without moving in front of the wall in the same place for a long time.
Fight and competition behaviors were lower in the stalls without enrichment 2. Dispute for enrichment objects among dominant goats explain this result. Morais, Balbinotti, and Schmidt point out the necessity to regroup animals according to their physiological and production needs, in order to reduce aggressions among young and old animals that are generally subordinated and dominant ones, respectively.
Subordinated animals suffer from stress due to aggressions and decrease their daily feed intake and performance. Animals under stress most certainly reduce their feed intake.
Thus, it is reasonable to assume that animals in stalls with enrichment had greater feed intake than animals on stalls without enrichment due to the improvement of their animal welfare level. In general, goats on the enriched environment preferred the suspended tire to other possible objects, with an interaction frequency of The bipedal position, in which goats stand using only their hind legs, is used under natural conditions to catch leaves from trees and bushes.
File:Saanen doe – Wikimedia Commons
This is one of the few non evolutionary-lost behaviors. According to Malechek and Leinweber as well caprinoculturs Malechek and Provenzagoats prefer wide and high located leaves even when good quality pasture is available, which justifies their bipedal behavior.
Animals extensively caprunocultura the tree trunk placed in the stalls to assume the bipedal standing position. However, we did not caprunocultura the length of time the animals remained in this position. Animals constantly ,eiteira this position in feed-lots systems and the trunk inside the stall aimed at promoting in feed-lot animal an approximation to natural environments. The results of our study were similar to those reported by Oliveira et al.
They observed behavioral changes in feed-lot animals with the enrichment of their ambient because this practice makes the environment more comfortable and reduces the apathy in feed-lot animals. The mainly purpose of providing environmental enrichment is to allow animals to express their natural behavior, propitiating their welfare as far as possible Ribeiro et al. Thus, making animals more productive by fulfilling their behavioral needs.
According to Oliveira et al.
Behavior of Saanen dairy goats in an enriched environment
leiteura Animals submitted to environmental enrichments were more active than animals not submitted to environmental caprinoclutura. In conclusion, different forms of environmental enrichment influence on the improvement of abnormal behavior of dairy goats in intensive housing. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Biossistemas8 1 Revista Mundial de Zootecnia47 Chemical composition and In vitro digestibility of forage consumed by goats on lightly caprinpcultura heavily stocked ranges.
Journal of Animal Science35 5 Physiological traits as affected by heat stress in sheep-a review. Small Ruminant Research71 1 Archivos de Zootecnia56 Acta Scientiae Veterinariae38 caprinochltura Archives of Veterinary Science20 2 Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia39 sup. Animal Sciences28 2 Image monitoring on the behavior study of three genetic groups of confined goats.
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia43 6 This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
Services on Demand Journal. Introduction Goat farming was a marginal or subsistence activity, characterized by low productivity. Results and discussion Figure 1 depicts the frequency percentage caprinoccultura each behavior during the day experimental period. Conclusion Animals submitted to environmental enrichments were more active than animals not submitted to environmental enrichments.
April 19, ; Accepted: Colombo,bloco 40 CEP Tel. How to cite this article.
File:Saanen doe browsing.jpg
The animal is removing ectoparasites using its teeth, horns, and other body parts to scratch. An animal establishes some kind of relationship with other animal such as play, sniff, or lie down on each other. The animal is showing repetitive behaviors without a useful purpose, such as biting, licking, or repetitive movements.